Salient Features of Constitution

Constitution features
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Structure of Constitution

1. Lengthiest written constitution
With principle of governance, detailed administrative provisions

2. Adapted from nations experiences
Borrowed with modifications suited to Indian context, avoiding their faults

3. Rigid and flexible system for amendment 2014 (04)
Based on flexible system as in simple majority and rigid as special majority. Some provision even more rigid requirement of ratification at least by half of the states.

Structure of Governance

5. Federal system with unitary bias
Not a ‘federation’ (not mentioned) but a union of states with no right to secede
(Quasi- Federal or Federal in form but Unitary in spirit)

6. Parliamentary system
Based on the principle of co-ordination and cooperation between Legislature and Executive branches

7. Parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy
Amendment and law making power with the Parliament and Judicial Review with the Judiciary

8. Separation of power
Separation of functions, duties and responsibilities of Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary

9. Independent and Integrated Judiciary
Integrated judiciary system with SC, HC and other lower courts 

10. Independent Bodies:
    For safeguarding democratic values and means 
    e.g.: Election Commission, CAG, UPSC, State PSC, etc

Democratic Features

10. Fundamental rights:
    6 rights promoting political democracy, to be restored by writs. 

11. Directive principles:
    For promoting the idea of economic and social democracy
    Seek to establish a ‘welfare state’
    They impose a moral obligation to states

12. Fundamental duties:
    11 Fundamental duties for citizens 

13. Secular state:
    Protecting all religions equally

14. 3 Tier Govt :
    Centre, State and Local government (Devolution of power)



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