Constitution provides for safeguarding the interests of certain classes for equality and justice (as enshrined in the Preamble).
Part XVI (Art 330- 342) details the special provisions relating to SC/ST/OBCs and Anglo- Indians.
Constitution does not specify the castes or tribes to be called SC/ST/OBC but empowers the President to specify. (Though Constitution has used expressions like socially and educationally backward classes, weaker sections)
Unlike them, Anglo-Indian is defined in the Constitution. Anglo- Indian is a person who father (or any male progenitor) is or was of European origin, domiciled in India. Some of the provisions specified for them are:
- Reservation of seats for ST/SCs and Anglo-Indians in legislatures:
Reservation of seats on the basis of their population in the Parliament as well as in the State Legislatures.
- Members from Anglo- Indian Community to be nominated by the President to the Lok Sabha and 1 member to the State Assembly by the Governor (if not adequately represented)
- Special provisions in services and posts for SC/STs:
Reservation in matter of service without sacrificing the efficiency (Art 335) including relaxation in qualifying marks and evaluation for reservation in services.
- Special provision for Anglo- Indians in services and educational grants:
For 10 years from the commencement of this Constitution (Ended in 1960)
- Monitoring and enforcement mechanism:
- Establishment by President National Commission for Scheduled Castes and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes to investigate all matters relating to the constitutional safeguards for SC/STs.
- They report to the President who causes such reports to be laid before the Parliament with action memorandum.
- The National Commission for SCs is also required to discharge similar duties with regard to Anglo- Indian Community.
- Special provisions in the administration of Scheduled Areas and welfare of STs:
- The President is required to appoint a Commission to report on the administration of Scheduled Areas.
- The Union power extends to giving directions to the States with respect to welfare of STs.
- Appointment of Commission for BCs:
The President may appoint a Commission to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes and to recommend the steps to improve their conditions. (ex: Kaka Kalelkar Committee 1955, Mandal Committee 1980)