(Topic-Wise Mains Papers) Paper-IV: General Science

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Paper– IV (General Studies- II: Science, Aptitude and Environment)

Part 01: General Science

Chemistry

Syllabus>>> Rate of chemical reaction and chemical equilibrium: Preliminary knowledge of rate of chemical reaction. Fast and slow chemical reactions.

2017

1.       Define acids and bases according to Bronsted-Lowry definition. Give one example of each. (2 marks)

2.       What do you understand by rate of chemical reaction?  Give its unit. (2 marks)

2016

1.       How is acidic and basic nature of solutions expressed in specific terms? (2 marks)

2.       What do you understand by slow and fast reactions? Explain with suitable examples. Describe the factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. (10 marks)

2015

1.       What do you mean by chemical equilibrium? Describe its characteristics. Explain the effect of pressure, temperature and concentration on the equilibrium of the following reactions: (10 marks)

2014

1.       Give two examples each of reversible and irreversible reactions. (2 marks)

2013

1.       Define rate of chemical reaction. (2 marks)

2012

1.       Explain important factors which influence the rate of a reaction. (4 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Metals: Position of metals in the periodic table and general properties. Metal, mineral ore. Difference between mineral and ore.

Metallurgy: concentration, roasting, smelting, refining of ores. Metallurgy of copper and Iron. Corrosion of metals. Alloys.

2018

1.       Define alloy and amalgam and give two examples of both. (2 marks)

2.       Explain the differences among caste iron, rough iron and steel. (2 marks)

3.       Illustrate with examples roasting and calcinations. (4 marks)

4.       Describe the reaction occurring in blast furnace during extraction of Iron. (8 marks)

2017

1.       Define and differentiate between minerals and ores. (2 marks)

2016

1.       How impurity of silicate from iron ore is removed in blast furnace? Explain it with chemical reaction. (2 marks)

2.       How the iron ore is concentrated? Explain. (4 marks)

2015

1.       Define Alloy and give its two examples. (2 marks)

2.       Write the names of two important ores of iron and describe its method of extraction giving chemical equations. (10 marks)

3.       Describe the position of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in the periodic table. Comment on the nature of their oxides and hydroxides. Explain the diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium. (8 marks)

2014

1.       Define metals and non-metals with examples. (2 marks)

2.       What do you understand by smelting and roasting of ore?  (2 marks)

3.       Define corrosion of metals. Describe two methods for the protection from corrosion. (4 marks)

2012

1.       Differentiate between ore and mineral. (2 marks)

2.       How electro-negativity changes in a group and period in periodic table? (4 marks)

3.       Write name and formula of two ores of copper. (2 marks)

4.       Describe in detail the extraction of copper from copper pyrite. (12 marks)

5.       How copper reacts with the following (Give balanced equations): Dilute nitric acid, Concentrate nitric acid (6 marks)

 

 

Syllabus>>> Nonmetals: Position of nonmetals in the periodic table and general Properties.

 

Syllabus>>> Some important organic compounds, some general artificial polymers, polythene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, soap and detergents.

2018

1.       What is thermoplastic? Write the structure and uses of polythene polymers. (2 marks)

2017

1.       What are soap and detergents? Give the types of detergents. Why detergents are considered to have better cleansing action as compared to soap. (4 marks)

2015

1.       Write the structure and uses of Teflon polymer. (2 marks)

2.       What do you meant by polymer and polymerization? Give the method of preparation and structure of the following: Rubber, PVC, Polythene (10 marks)

2013

1.       What is the difference between soap and detergent? (2 marks)

2.       Write structure and uses of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC). (2 marks)               

3.       Write classification of polymer on the basis of structure with example. (4 marks)

Physics

Syllabus>>> Light: nature of light reflection of light, laws of reflection, reflection from plane and curved surface, image formation by plane convex and concave mirror, relation between focal length and radius of curvature

2018

1.       Write the laws of reflection of light. (2 marks)

2.       What are basic properties of light? (any four) (2 marks)

2017

1.       Why do we prefer a convex mirror as a rear-view mirror in vehicles? (2 marks)

2016

1.       Write two characteristics of an image formed by plane mirror. (2 marks)

2.       Define first and second principal focus of any lens with ray diagram. (10 marks)

2015

1.       Mention two uses of convex mirror. (2 marks)

2013

1.       Mention two uses of concave mirror. (2 marks)

2.       Show with the help of ray diagram, the formation of image by a convex lens, when the object is at: 2F, F (4 marks)

 

Syllabus>>>

  • Causes of origin of energy in the Sun
  • Electric discharge in gases
  • Photo electric effect, Solar Cell, Structure, PN Junction Diode

2018

1.       Write the principle of Photo voltaic cell. (2 marks)

2.       What is semi-conductor? Explain the construction and working of a p-n diode. (8 marks)

3.       What is photo-electric effect? Write the laws of photo-electric effect and explain Einstein equation, threshold frequency and work function. Write the uses of photo-electric effect. (15 marks)

2017

1.       What do you understand by Cathode Rays? State any four properties of Cathode Rays. (4 marks)

2016

1.       What is energy source of the Sun? Describe.

2.       Explain the properties and applications of X-rays. (4 marks)

2015

1.       What is meant by cathode rays? How they are produced? Write six characteristics of it. (10 marks)

2013

1.       What is nuclear fusion? What is thermo nuclear fusion? (4 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Electricity and its effects: electric intensity, potential, potential difference, electric current Ohm’s law. Resistance specific resistance, influencing factors, combination of resistance and related numerical examples thermal effect of current its use, calculation of power and electrical energy spent (numerical), precautions observed in electric experiments.

2018

1.       Write the laws of combination of resistance and obtain formulae for equivalent resistance. (4 marks)

2.       Define intensity of electric field. What is its unit?

If the distance between two plates is 4 cm and potential difference between them is 12 volt; calculate the intensity of electric field between plates. (4 marks)

2017

1.       What are the factors on which the resistance depends? Define specific resistance. (2 marks)

2016

1.       Three resistances each of 2 ohm are connected as shown in figure. Determine the equivalent resistance between A and C. (2 marks)

2015

1.       What is meant by electric potential? State whether it is scalar or vector. (2 marks)

2.       Explain electric power and energy consumed in electric with their SI Unit. What is one kilowatt hour (1 unit) energy? (8 marks)

2014

1.       Define specific resistance. What is its unit in SI System? (2 marks)

2013

1.       Give the frequency range of X-rays. Mention two properties of X-rays. (2 marks)

2012

1.       What is Ohm’s Law? (2 marks)

2.       An electrical kettle rated at 220V, 2.2kW works for 3 hours. Find the energy consumed and the current drawn. (4 marks)

 

Biology

Syllabus>>> Transport:  Transport of mineral and water in plants and animals (in context of human being). structure and function of blood, Structure and working of heart (preliminary knowledge)

2018

1.       With the help of labeled diagram, describe the structure and working of human heart. (15 marks)

2016

1.       Which part of the heart is called ‘pacemaker’ and why? (4 marks)

2.       What is the role of diaphragm in breathing? (8 marks)

2013

1.       Describe briefly the blood groups in human beings. (4 marks)

2.       Describe the composition and functions of blood. (20 marks)

2012

1.       Differentiate between an artery and a vein. (2 marks)

2.       Describe the structure of human heart. Discuss heart beating also. (40 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Photosynthesis: Definition, main steps of the process. Light reaction and dark reaction

2018

1.       Differentiate between C3 and C4 cycles of carbon fixation. (4 marks)

2017

1.       Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. (8 marks)

2016

1.       Write names of four main factors which influence photosynthesis. (2 marks)

2015

1.       What is CO2 compensation point in photosynthesis? (2 marks)

2.       Write notes on the following: C3 and C4 Cycles in photosynthesis. (4 marks)

2014

1.       How do you prove that carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis? (2 marks)

2013

1.       What is the role of light reaction in photosynthesis? (2 marks)

2012

1.       How will you prove that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis? (2 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Respiration: Definition, breathing and respiration, Types of respiration, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration, respiratory organs of animals,

Respiratory system of human being and mechanism of respiration (general information)

2018

1.       Describe human respiratory organ with the help of a diagram. (8 marks)

2017

1.       Define Anaerobic Respiration. (2 marks)

2.       What is Myocardial Infarction? Describe briefly its treatment. (4 marks)

3.       Coagulation of blood (4 marks)

2016

1.       What are the various organs of respiratory system? How respiration occurs in human? (10 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Animal nutrition: Human digestive system and digestive process (general information)

2017

1.       What is digestion? Describe the digestion of carbohydrates, protein and lipids in alimentary canal of human beings and also its absorption process. (20 marks)

2013

1.       What is digestion? Describe the role of enzymes in digestive process in human digestive system. (8 marks)

2012

1.       Describe the structure of respiratory system of human beings in brief. Explain breathing mechanism also. (4 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Control and coordination: Nervous system of human being. Structure and function of human Brain and spinal cord

Coordination in plants and animals: phyto-hormones, endocrine glands hormone and their function.

2018

1.       Describe briefly the structure of a neuron or nerve cell. (2 marks)

2017

1.       Dysfunction of which endocrine gland leads to diabetes and why? (2 marks)

2015

1.       Where is thyroid gland located in human being? Describe the hormone secreted by it and its control. (2 marks)

2.       Write about the source and function of any two of the following phyto-hormones: Auxins, Gibberlins, Cytokinins (8 marks)

3.        Write notes on the following: reflex action and its mechanism (10 marks)

2014

1.       Describe briefly that Hypothalmo-hypophyseal system is leader of endocrine orchestra. Illustrate the main hormonal functions of various endocrine glands. (20 marks)

2013

1.       Name a gland which serves both as exocrine and endocrine gland and describe its functions briefly in human beings. (2 marks)

2012

1.       Name the largest exocrine gland and describe its functions in human beings. (2 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Reproduction and growth: type of reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction: fission, budding, regeneration,vegetative reproduction, layering, cutting, grafting, Porthenogenesis,
  • Sexual reproduction in plants, structure of flower and reproduction process (general information), pollination fertilization.
  • Human reproductive system and reproduction process (general information)

2018

1.       What is grafting? How it is done in plants? (2 marks)

2.       What is polyembryony? Explain it with examples. (2 marks)

2017

1.       Vegetative reproduction in terms of layering. (2 marks)

2016

1.       What is cross pollination? Explain various modes of the same. (4 marks)

2.       Make a well labeled diagram of a flower. Write about the functions of different parts of flower. (10 marks)

2015

1.       Describe briefly the mechanism of double fertilization found in plants. (4 marks)

2014

1.       Define and explain briefly the process of Partheno genesis with examples. (2 marks)

2.       Describe the structure of female reproductive parts of a flower. (2 marks)

2013

1.       What is vegetative reproduction? Describe briefly its various types. (4 marks)

2012

1.       What is pollination? How many types of it are? Explain. (2 marks)

 

Syllabus>>> Heredity and evolution: heredity and variation. Fundamental basis of heredity chromosome and DNA (preliminary information)

2018

1.       Describe Mendel’s law of inheritance. (4 marks)

2017

1.       Describe the structure and significance of DNA. (20 marks)

2016

1.       What are polytene chromosomes? Where are they found? What are their puffed areas called? (2 marks)

2015

1.       Define chromosome theory of heredity. (2 marks)

 


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