Constitutional Development

Constitutional Development of India (1773-1950)

Background 1765 East India Company obtained ‘Diwani’ (revenue and civil rights) and company rule started in India. There were many steps taken to administer and regulate company affairs in India…

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Protection of Human Rights Act 1993

It’s an Act to provide for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission and State Human Rights Commission in States and Human Rights Courts for better protection of Human…

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Amendment of the Constitution

Art 368 deals with the powers of the Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. The amendment procedure laid down is rigid and flexible; flexible to include the changed…

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Emergency Provisions in the Constitution

Art 352- Art 360 deal with emergency provisions, incorporated to safeguard the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the country. These provisions empower the Union Govt to meet certain unforeseen emergencies…

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Panchayats and Municipalities

The history of Panchayati Raj starts from the self-sufficient and self-governing village communities. In the time of the Rig-Veda (1700 BC), evidence suggests that self-governing village bodies called ‘sabhas’ existed. With the…

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Election and Election Commission

Part XV Art 324- 329 deals with elections. Art 324 provides for an independent Election Commission for the free and fair election. It vests power of superintendence, direction and control…

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Tribunals and Administrative Tribunals

42nd Amendment added a new part XIVA to the Constitution for Tribunals: Administrative Tribunals (Art 323A) and Tribunals for other purpose (Art 323B)  Administrative Tribunals: Parliament may provide for the…

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Services under Union and State

Public Services (Art 308- 314):Constitution empowers the Parliament (States for State Services) to regulate the recruitment and conditions of service (including reasonable restrictions on the Fundamental Rights) (Art 309) They…

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Relations between the Union and the States

The Constitution of India, being federal in structure, in Part XI divides powers- legislative, administrative, financial- between the Centre and the States. (Cooperative Federalism)The Centre- State relations can be divided…

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High Courts & Subordinate Courts, Advocate General

Art 214-231 covers High Courts (HCs). Constitution provides for a HC in each state, also allowed for a common HC. Presently there are 24 HCs, their territorial jurisdiction is co-terminus…

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