(Topic-Wise Mains Papers) Paper-VI: Philosophy (दर्शनशास्त्र)

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Paper- VI (General Studies- IV: Philosophy and Sociology)

Part 01: Philosophy

Syllabus>>> Indian Philosophy: Nature of Philosophy, its relation between religion and culture, difference  between Indian and western Philosophy


1.       Give short description of Nastik Darshan. (2 marks)

2.       Indian Philosophy is characterized by predominantly spiritual outlook. Illustrate with example. (8 marks)

3.       Is Indian Philosophy pessimist? Describe. (15 marks)

4.       What is the relation of life with Indian Philosophy? (15 marks)


1.       Elucidate the point of main differences between Indian and Western Philosophy. (4 marks)


1.       Is philosophy the mother of all subjects? (2 marks)

2.       Is religion and philosophy complementary? (2 marks)

3.       Why the school of Indian Philosophy is divided into Astika and Nastika? (4 marks)

4.       Give a comparative account of Indian and Western Philosophy. (8 marks)

5.       What is philosophy? (5 marks)

6.       Explain the characteristics of Indian Philosophy. (15 marks)


1.       What do you mean by philosophical traditions known as Astika and Nastika? (2 marks)

2.        ‘Indian Philosophy is not mere a theory but therapy too’- explain it. (4 marks)


1.       State the meaning of the term ‘Darshan’ in Indian context. (2 marks)

2.       Discuss the fundamental features of Indian Philosophy. (4 marks)


1.       ‘Philosophy is the transformation of life.’ Comment. (2 marks)

Syllabus>>> Veda and Upanishad: Brahman,  Atman,Rit, Philosophy of Gita- Sthitpragya, Swadharma, Karmayoga


1.       What do you mean by Rta? (2 marks)

2.       What is the meaning of Sthitpragya according to Gita? (2 marks)

3.       Discuss the nature of Brahman according to Acharya Sankara. (15 marks)


1.       What is the meaning of Upanishad? (2 marks)


1.       What is called Prarabdh Karma? Can it be destroyed? (2 marks)


  • Philosophy of Charvaka: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Hedonism.
  • Philosophy of Jain: Nature of Jiva, Anekantvada, Syadavada, Panchamahavrata,


1.       What is the nature of Jiva according to Jaina philosophy? (4 marks)


1.       What are the ‘Triratnas’ according to Jain Philosophy? (2 marks)

Syllabus>>> Philosophy of Buddha: Pratityasamutpada, Ashtanga  Marg, Anatmavada,  Kshanikvada


1.       What do you mean by Pratityasamutpada? (2 marks)

Syllabus>>> Six schools of Indian philosophy:

  • Philosophy of Samkhya: Satkaryavada, nature of prakriti and purusha, vikasavada
  • Philosophy of Yoga: Ashtanga Yoga
  • Philosophy of Nyaya: Prama, Aprama, Asatkaryavada
  • Philosophy of Vaisheshika: Parmanuvada,
  • Philosophy of Mimamsa: Dharma, Theory of Apurva,
  • Philosophy of Advaita Vedanta: Brahman, Maya, Jagat, Moksha


1.       What is Prama in Nyaya Philosophy? (2 marks)

2.       State the meaning and object of Yoga. (2 marks)

3.       Define the concept of Dharma in Indian context. (2 marks)

4.       Define Anuman (Inference) according to Nyaya Philosophy. What are its kinds? (4 marks)

5.       Explain Sankhya theory of Causation. (8 marks)


1.       Write Kanad definition of Dharma. (2 marks)

2.       Samadhi is the perfection of Yoga. Write a note. (4 marks)

3.       What are the kinds of ‘Klesha’ according to Yoga Shastra? (4 marks)


1.       What are the ‘Niyamas’ as per Yoga Philosophy? (2 marks)

2.       What is meant by six fold schools of Indian Philosophy? (2 marks)

3.       Explain the internal means of Yoga discipline. (8 marks)


1.       What are the external means of yoga practice? (2 marks)


1.       Give a proper definition of Yoga? (2 marks)

2.       What are the ‘Yamas’ according to Yoga Philosophy? (2 marks)

3.       Explain ‘Chitta-Bhumies’ according to Yoga Philosophy. (8 marks)


1.       What do you mean by ‘Kritapranash’ and ‘Akritabhyupagama’? (2 marks)

2.       Describe the relationship between philosophy and culture. (2 marks)

3.       Explain ‘Pranayam’ according to Yoga Philosophy. (4 marks)

4.       Describe the ‘eight fold paths’ of Yoga practice. (8 marks)

Syllabus>>> Indian Philosophers:

  • Kautilya: Theory of  Saptanga, theory of Mandal;
    • Swami Vivekananda: Practical Vedanta, universal religion,
    • Sri Aurbindo:  Integral yoga, super mind
  • Gurunanak: social-ethical philosophy,
    • Guru Ghasidas: Characteristics of Satnam pantha;
    • Vallabhacharya:  Pushtimarga
  • Mahatma Gandhi: Ahinsa, satyagraha, eleven vows;
    • Bhimrao Ambedkar: Social thought,
    • Deendayal Upadhyay: Ekatma manav darshan



1.       What are the 11 Vratas according to Mahatma Gandhi? (4 marks)

2.       Elucidate Dr B R Amendkar’s view of equality. (8 marks)

Syllabus>>> Western Philosophers:

  • Plato: virtues;
    • Aristotle: theory of causation;
    • Saint Anselm: ontological argument for the existence of God;
    • Descartes: method of doubt, I think therefore I am;
    • Spinoza: Substance, Pantheism;


1.       Define Substance according to Spinoza. (2 marks)

2.       What are the different theories of causation according to Aristotle? (4 marks)

3.       Discuss Spinoza’s concept of Pantheism. (8 marks)

Syllabus>>> Western Philosophers:

  • Leibnitz: theory of Monad, theory of pre- established harmony;
    • Locke: epistemology;
    • Berkeley: esse est percipii;
    • Hume: skepticism;
    • Kant- criticism;
    • Hegel: phenomenology and spirit, dialectical idealism;
    • Bradley: idealism. 
  • Moore: realism;
    • A.J. Ayar: verification theory;
    • John Dewey: pragmatism;
    • Saftre: existentialism


1.       How does GE Moore refute idealism? Explain. (15 marks)

Syllabus>>> Ethics: Meaning of Religion, Nature of philosophy of religion, religious tolerance, secularism, problem of evil


1.       Explain the idea of religious tolerance. (2 marks)

2.       What should be the characteristics of universal religion? (15 marks)


1.       What are the main differences between religion and philosophy of religion? (2 marks)

2.       What do you mean by fundamental unity of religions? (10 marks)

3.       On what grounds unity among all religions can be established? Explain. (10 marks)


1.       What is secularism? (4 marks)


1.       What are the main differences between religion and philosophy? (2 marks)

2.       Which meaning of secularism is more suitable for multi-cultural society? Discuss with reasons. (20 marks)


1.       What is religious tolerance? (2 marks)

2.       Elucidate the meaning of secularism in western context. (40/3 marks)

3.       Clarify the meaning of ‘secularism’ as it is accepted in Indian Constitution. (40/3 marks)

4.       Discuss the Gandhian viewpoint regarding ‘Sarva-Dharma-Sambhava’. (40/3 marks)


  • Ethical values and ethical dilemma,
    • Ethical elements in administration: honesty, responsibility, transparency, code of conduct for public servants
  • Corruption: Meaning, types, cause and effect, efforts to remove corruption.
    • Relevance of whistle-blower.


1.       Who is whistle blower? (2 marks)

2.       What are the different causes of corruption? (4 marks)

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